Main Article Content
This editorial focuses on the imperceptible side effects of widespread use of facemask especially during COVID-19 pandemic in context of Bangladesh. Both single used facemask and reusable fabricated facemasks are creating extra load on regular waste streams and accelerating the chance of microplastic leaching in various ways. In Bangladesh, a significant amount of fabricated and non-fabricated facemasks is using everyday alike the other countries of the world. This aggravated usage of facemasks tends to create microplsatic pollution that pose potential threat to both environment and human health. However, no significant studies have been done yet that focused on the imperceptible side effects of facemasks wearing by huge population of the country like Bangladesh. It is high time to bring this subtle effects to lime light and seek attention of the researchers to make scientific solution in a sustainable way.
JEL Classification Codes: Q53, I12.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Almroth, B.M.C., Åstrom, ¨ L., Roslund, S., Petersson, H., Johansson, M., & Persson, N.K. (2018). Quantifying shedding of synthetic fibers from textiles; a source of microplastics released into the environment. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 25(2), 1191–1199.
Aragaw, T.A. (2020). Surgical face masks as a potential source for microplastic pollution in the COVID-19 scenario. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 159(111517).
Belzagui, F., Crespi, M., Alvarez, A., Guti´errez-Bouzan, C., & Vilaseca, M. (2019). Microplastics’ emissions: microfibers’ detachment from textile garments. Environmental Pollution, 248, 1028–1035.
Chamas, A., Moon, H., Zheng, J., Qiu, Y., Tabassum, T., Jang, J.H., Abu-Omar, M., Scott, S.L., & Suh, S. (2020). Degradation rates of plastics in the environment. ACS Sustainable Chemical Engineering, 8(9), 3494–3511.
De Falco, F., Di Pace, E., Cocca, M., & Avella, M. (2019). The contribution of washing processes of synthetic clothes to microplastic pollution. Scientific Report, 9(1), 1–11.
ESDO. (2020). ESDO’s online press briefing on COVID-19 pandemic outbreak 14,500 tons of hazardous plastic waste in a month. Environment and social development organization (ESDO). Retrieved from https//esdo.org/esdos-onlinepress-briefing-on-hazardous-plastic-waste-generationin-a-month-during-covid-19-pandemic/.
Fadare, O.O., & Okoffo, E.D. (2020). Covid-19 face masks: a potential source of microplastic fibers in the environment. Science of the Total Environment, 737(140279).
Ferguson, N. M., Laydon, D., Nedjati-Gilani, G., Imai, N., Ainslie, K., Baguelin, M., ... & Ghani, A. C. (2020). Impact of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) to reduce COVID-19 mortality and healthcare demand. Imperial College London Response Team.
Hartline, N.L., Bruce, N.J., Karba, S.N., Ruff, E.O., Sonar, S.U., & Holden, P.A. (2016). Microfiber masses recovered from conventional machine washing of new or aged garments. Environmental Science and Technology, 50(21), 1532–11538.
Hasan, N.A., & Haque, M.M. (2020). Predict the next moves of COVID-19: reveal the temperate and tropical countries scenario. medRxiv.
Hasan, N.A., & Siddik, M.S. (2020). Possible role of meteorological variables in COVID-19 spread: a case study from a subtropical monsoon country Bangladesh. Preprints, 28.
Henry, B., Laitala, K., & Klepp, I.G. (2019). Microfibres from apparel and home textiles: prospects for including microplastics in environmental sustainability assessment. Science of the Total Environment, 652, 483–494
Johnson, A.T. (2016). Respirator masks protect health but impact performance: A review. Journal of Biological Engineering, 10(4).
Kobayashi, L.M., Marins, B.R., Costa, P.C.D.S., Perazzo, H. & Castro, R. (2020). Extended use or reuse of N95 respirators during COVID-19 pandemic: an overview of national regulatory authorities’ recommendations. Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology, 41(11), 1364-1366.
Lan, J., Song, Z., Miao, X., Li, H., & Li, Y. (2020). Skin damage among health care workers managing coronavirus disease-2019. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, 82(5), 1215-1216.
Lim, E. C. H., Seet, R. C. S., Lee, K. H., Wilder‐Smith, E. P. V., Chuah, B. Y. S., & Ong, B. K. C. (2006). Headaches and the N95 face‐mask amongst healthcare providers. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, 113(3), 199-202.
Lovell, N., Maddocks, M., Etkind, S.N., Taylor, K., Carey, I., Vora, V., Marsh, L., Higginson, I.J., Prentice, W., Edmonds, P., & Sleeman, K.E. (2020). Characteristics, symptom management and outcomes of 101 patients with COVID-19 referred for hospital palliative care. Journal of Pain Symptom Management, 60(1).
Napper, I.E., & Thompson, R.C. (2016). Release of synthetic microplastic plastic fibres from domestic washing machines: effects of fabric type and washing conditions. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 112, 39–45.
Ngonghala, C.N., Iboi, E., Eikenberry, S., Scotch, M., MacIntyre, C.R., Bonds, M.H., & Gumel, A.B. (2020). Mathematical assessment of the impact of non-pharmaceutical interventions on curtailing the 2019 novel Coronavirus. Mathematical Biosciences, 325(108364).
O’Brien, S., Okoffo, E.D., O’Brien, J.W., Ribeiro, F., Wang, X., Wright, S.L., Samanipour, S., Rauert, C., Toapanta, T.Y.A., Albarracin, R. & Thomas, K.V. (2020). Airborne emissions of microplastic fibres from domestic laundry dryers. Science of the Total Environment, 141175.
Ong, J.J.Y., Bharatendu, C., Goh, Y., Tang, J.Z.Y. and Sooi, K.W.X., Tan Y.L., Tan, B.Y.Q, Teoh, H.L, Ong, S.T, Allen, D.M, Sharma, V.K. (2020). Headaches associated with personal protective equipment- A cross sectional study among frontline healthcare workers during COVID-19. Headache 60(5), 864-877.
Prata, J.C., Silva, A.L.P., Walker, T.R., Duarte, A.C., & Rocha-Santos, T. (2020). COVID-19 Pandemic Repercussions on the Use and Management of Plastics. Environmental Science and Technology, 54, 7760–7765.
Ríos, M.F., Hernández-Moresino, R.D., & Galván, D.E. (2020). Assessing urban microplastic pollution in a benthic habitat of Patagonia Argentina. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 159(111491).
Sana, S.S., Dogiparthi, L.K., Gangadhar, L., Chakravorty, A., & Abhishek, N. (2020). Effects of microplastics and nanoplastics on marine environment and human health. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 27, 44743–44756.
Vered, G., Kaplan, A., Avisar, D., & Shenkar, N. (2019). Using solitary ascidians to assess microplastic and phthalate plasticizers pollution among marine biota: a case study of the Eastern Mediterranean and Red Sea. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 138, 618–625.
Vieten, U.M. (2020). The “new normal” and “pandemic populism”: the COVID-19 crisis and anti-hygienic mobilisation of the far-right. Social Science, 9(165).
Xu, S., Ma, J., Ji, R., Pan, K., & Miao, A.J. (2020). Microplastics in aquatic environments: occurrence, accumulation, and biological effects. Science of the Total Environment, 703(134699).
Yang, L., Qiao, F., Lei, K., Li, H., Kang, Y., Cui, S., & An, L. (2019). Microfiber release from different fabrics during washing. Environmental Pollution, 249, 136–143.
Zambrano, M.C., Pawlak, J.J., Daystar, J., Ankeny, M., Cheng, J.J., & Venditti, R.A. (2019). Microfibers generated from the laundering of cotton, rayon and polyester based fabrics and their aquatic biodegradation. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 142, 394–407.
Zhou, P., Yang, X.Lou, Wang, X.G., Hu, B., Zhang, L. & Zhang, W. (2020). A pneumonia outbreak associated with a new coronavirus of probable bat origin. Nature 579, 270– 273.